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中文维基百科:新聞動態

中文维基百科【维基百科中文版网站】
(重定向自Wikipedia:新闻动态
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2020年明尼阿波利斯騷亂

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閱讀 · 歷史 · 近期變更 · 編輯 · 建議

位於維基百科首頁新聞動態專欄,提供讀者直接導引至已經進行實質更新的條目,以反映最近發生以及具有廣泛興趣的事件。新聞動態能輔助維基百科的中心思想,也就是成為一部偉大的百科全書

與維基百科的姐妹計畫維基新聞不同,維基百科不是一份電子新聞,也不接受來自記者或第一手報導的原創研究。然而許多維基百科人會主動建立或更新具有即時關注性質的條目。新聞動態起源於英語維基百科的九一一恐怖攻擊事件之後,當事件發生之時,維基百科人在攻擊發生後數分鐘建立本專欄並放到首頁上。這個項目引發了編輯者的興趣,而成為了維基百科首頁的一個章節,藉由將相關條目連結到首頁,提供讀者瞭解新聞背後的脈絡。

新聞動態的內容必須以事件發生順序列出,最新發生的事件放在首位,一般而言不會以重要程度來安排內容順序。事件的添加主要基於新聞動態候選頁面的共識,並採取兩大標準:更新內容的品質,以及更新的內容發展具有重要性。

目的[编辑]

  • 協助讀者尋找並快速接觸因新聞事件而可能想要搜尋的內容。
  • 展示維基百科在最新事件當中的內容品質。
  • To point readers to subjects they might not have been looking for but nonetheless may interest them.
  • 強調維基百科是一種動態來源。

標準[编辑]

Candidates for ITN are evaluated on two main grounds: the quality of the updated content and the significance of the developments described in the updated content. In many cases, qualities in one area can make up for deficiencies in another. For example, a highly significant event, such as the discovery of a cure for cancer, may have a sub-par update associated with it, but be posted anyway with the assumption that other editors will soon join in and improve the article. Conversely, an editor may write an in-depth update on a topic normally considered marginal, thus convincing commenters that it is deserving of inclusion. A successful nomination will normally go through several procedural steps before being added to the ITN template.

更新內容[编辑]

Each ITN item contains an emboldened link to an article providing a substantial quantity of directly relevant information, attributed to reliable sources. Typically, the article has been updated to include this text or created in response to the recent/current event.

The decision as to when an article is updated enough is subjective, but a five-sentence update (with at minimum three references, not counting duplicates) is generally more than sufficient, while a one-sentence update is highly questionable. Changes in verb tense (e.g. "is" → "was") or updates that convey little or no relevant information beyond what is stated in the ITN blurb are insufficient.

In the case of a new, event-specific article, the traditional cut-off for what is enough has been around three complete, referenced and well-formed paragraphs. An example of the minimum required update for a new article is Fuzhou derailment at the time of its posting.

If the recent/current event relates directly to previous occurrences (e.g. a major award honoring past achievements), the article can be considered sufficiently updated when there is consensus that it contains appropriate, up-to-date coverage of the entire chronology, irrespective of when the text was written or how many sentences pertain specifically to the recent/current event (apart from the requirement that it be mentioned).

Updated content must be thoroughly referenced. As with all Wikipedia articles, citations must be to reliable sources. While articles on topics such as sporting events and economics lend themselves to tables of numbers, updates must be at least in part written in prose to qualify for ITN consideration. References should be correctly formatted and not bare URLs.

Articles that are subject to serious issues, as indicated by 'orange'- or 'red'-level tags at either the article level or within any section, may not be accepted for an emboldened link.

An accepted blurb may be transferred to 'Ongoing' by an administrator if small, incremental updates are still appearing in notable news agencies, and if the administrator is satisfied that regular constructive editing is continuing on the relevant article(s). Major developments should be nominated for a new blurb. An article listed as 'Ongoing' should not be taken as being considered as a featured article or otherwise maintained on the front page for reasons other than its newsworthiness.

重要性[编辑]

對於哪些主題具有重要性,足以納入新聞動態專欄,通常具有爭議性。除了以下兩項指引外,目前沒有任何的規則:

  • 所提名的新聞必須是「最新發生」,也就是此事件必須出現在最近的新聞來源上,與/或發生於新聞動態專欄所規定的時間框架之內。
  • 所提名的新聞必須取得共識

某件新聞是否足夠重要非常主觀,最終必須要針對每件新聞的特色或優勢進行討論。參與有關候選新聞討論的編輯者是否能達成共識,是確認是否將該新聞發佈於新聞動態的必要條件。一般而言,我們必須要提出證明,表明相關新聞來源已對相關事件進行深入報導。在評估新聞來源的顯著性時應當特別謹慎,因為大多數主流新聞媒體會根據地理位置及瀏覽歷史,為個別使用者提供客製化瀏覽體驗。某位使用者所認為的頭條新聞,對於其他使用者而言可能不被視為頭條新聞,反之亦然。因此,請不要根據您在主流新聞網站上的報導,來評估提名內容是否具有「顯著性」。其他原則可以協助您進行判斷:

  • 新聞內容本身的長度及深度(相關新聞報導內容是否足夠長且詳細,還是比較短而粗略?);
  • 關於新聞主題的獨特新聞報導數量(每個主要新聞來源是否安排各自的專責人員負責報導事件內容,還是只重複發佈同樣的新聞報導內容?);
  • 關於新聞主題的更新頻率(該報導是否只發佈一次而之後不予理會,還是會持續更新,且是否會持續出現該主題相關的報導?);
  • 新聞來源報導相關新聞的類型(該主題是否由具備高品質新聞素養及聲譽的主流國家新聞機構所報導?)。

上述這些原則可以協助您支持或反對其他人將提名內容發佈至新聞動態專欄。然而,這些原則仍可能不足以推翻共識。謹記,您要說服的是社群內的其他人而非管理員,而且對持有不同意見的編輯者持續進行糾纏,對於達成共識的幫助非常有限。

歷史上,維基百科社群對於針對特定種類新聞的重要性進行爭論,而感到不悅。當然,任何使用者可以用任何理由,支持或反對某個候選內容,但請留意以下的歷史爭論,一般而言不會獲得太多的支持:

  • 爭論某篇新聞只與特定地理位置、國家、種族、人民團體等等有關,一般來說沒有幫助。幾乎所有新聞都只會對特定地區與/或團體感到有興趣,而並非大到全世界人們對某個新聞有興趣;而且,爭辯某個新聞應不應該發佈,只基於事件發生的地點,或是只對其發生地的人們「感興趣」,通常並不會得到維基百科社群的認同。
  • Arguments that deal with the appropriateness of topics in general but also ignore the specific story being discussed are also usually not supported by the community. Opposing a specific story merely because one opposes all stories of that type (such as elections, or sports, or disasters) do not often generate agreement from the community. This also holds true for arguments based on similar stories which have coincidentally appeared recently, such as multiple elections on the same day, etc. Please assess and comment on the merits of each story on its own accord, not in relation to other similar stories.
  • 基於道德的爭論,例如某人對於某個主題感到被冒犯而表示反對,或是某個事件本身應當受到譴責而持反對態度,通常會被社群其他成員駁回。負面新聞可能會出現在新聞當中,而我們所評估的原則並非基於事件的道德或「良善」,而是基於新聞當中的顯著性及重要性。
  • 基於個人興趣與知識的爭論,極不足以產生社群之間的認同。僅僅是因為某個人沒有聽過某篇新聞,或是沒有親自關注某個事件,在評估新聞的重要性時並不能作為充足理由。
  • 針對該篇新聞是否在多個國際報刊/新聞頻道的首頁或主要網站予以報導而進行爭論。某篇新聞是否被許多新聞報紙或頻道高度關注,對於新聞動態專欄而言很有可能具有重要意義,但我們在考量其重要性時,並非基於該篇新聞有多少新聞來源關注過,或是這些新聞來源認為該篇新聞非常重要。同樣地,新聞動態專欄中與運動、科學以及藝文主題相關的新聞,儘管全球的可靠來源會予以報導,但不會在其來源首頁予以凸顯。The lack of coverage in a specific source is usually not sufficient to block an item from posting, nor is the inclusion of a topic in a particular source a guarantee of inclusion. Consider that many online news sources serve content based on geolocation, so not every person will see the same collection of front-page stories as others, making assessment of "front page significance" highly subjective. It is important to remember that arguments are based on evidence and no one piece of evidence is taken in isolation as being self-evidently sufficient for either posting, or refusing to post, a story, and editors should build consensus through their analysis of all evidence as presented by themselves and others.

條目品質[编辑]

Articles are held to a minimum standard of quality. Articles should be a minimally comprehensive overview of the subject, not omitting any major items. Stub articles are never appropriate for the main page. Articles should be well written with clear prose. Articles which consist solely or mostly of lists and tables, with little narrative prose, are usually not acceptable for the main page, and prose should be in narrative style, not "proseline"-type writing. Articles should be well referenced; one or two "citation needed" tags may not hold up an article, but any contentious statements must have a source, and having entire sections without any sources is unacceptable. Biographies of living persons are held to higher standards of referencing because of their sensitive nature, and these rules also apply to those recently deceased. Lists of awards and honors, bibliographies and filmographies and the like should have clear sources. Sources themselves should be checked for reliability. Generally, "orange" and "red" level clean-up tags are signs that article quality is not acceptable for the main page as well.

張貼流程[编辑]

新聞動態內容會張貼於首頁,以凸顯相關的優質維基百科條目。其候選流程如下:

  1. 更新的條目不得為小作品,应具有令人滿意的品質,並且要引用可靠來源。
  2. 這些內容要提名至Wikipedia:新聞動態候選,並且要將更新過的條目加粗;建議可以附加一張自由授權的圖像,理想的狀況是該圖在主流媒體屬於頭條新聞。如果沒有頭條新聞有關的圖像,可以依據本文下方的說明,依序往下尋找合適的圖像。
  3. 所提交的事件必須為最近發生的新聞,並且相對於其他事件而言並非陳舊。單一事件必需在5天以內,以及不超過新聞動態專欄內最舊一條新聞內容的時間才符合張貼標準。最近逝世部份與普通新聞內容分別評估。在考慮新聞發生時間與陳舊程度時,請以可靠來源首次發表的時間為準。雖然發表時間有可能和事件發生時間一致,但有時可能會在事件發生後一段時間才予以發表;例如科學發現的報告或論文,雖然相關研究早已完成,但要花上數個月時間才會出版至可靠來源。
  4. 如果候選簡介已經達成共識,某位管理員將會把當選內容加入Template:In the news模板。

組織新聞動態專欄[编辑]

內容[编辑]

大多數新聞動態是由一小段內容組合而成。內容部分是一段重要新聞的簡短解釋,並將特定條目突顯出來,以讓讀者直接點進該條目,學習更多相關知識。這類放在首頁的重點條目,應當要有充足的品質,這意味著:

  • 該條目有充足的參考來源(雖然條目中的所有部分都不應該缺少參考文獻,但只有少數的「來源請求」標籤通常不會成為刊登與否的障礙;此外生者傳記的資訊會特別予以檢視)。
  • 該條目沒有任何其他重大問題。Usually, orange and red level tags are generally considered major enough to block posting to ITN, though editors are cautioned against tagging an article merely to block an article from being posted, especially where the article is of sufficient quality. Other tags (such as yellow level tags, or notices about merge discussions, etc.) are not themselves sufficient to block an item which otherwise has consensus; articles which are moved or merged may have their links in ITN updated through WP:ERRORS.
  • That the article is long enough to give readers a full picture of the background of the story we are posting (stubs never get posted, even start-class articles will often get opposed if they are lacking enough context to fully understand the subject)
  • That the article is adequately updated to provide a full picture of the facts and relevance of recent developments. While it is impossible to give a minimum word limit, it is generally inadequate if the entirety of the update is only a sentence, such that no more information is in the update than would be in the blurb.

Blurbs are posted in rough chronological order by the date when the event occurred. There is usually no effort made to be more specific than the date, and admins will generally not research the exact minute when an event occurred to make sure that multiple events that occurred on the same date are strictly in order. Please do not request that events be re-ordered unless the date itself is wrong. The number of blurbs varies from time to time, depending on the length of each individual blurb and the relative lengths of other sections on the main page. The goal is to avoid excessive white space, especially between the right and left columns, and older blurbs may be periodically removed or added to achieve this.

Some guidelines for the structuring of blurbs:

  • Blurbs should avoid sensationalism wherever it makes the entry less accurate, clear or concise (such as addition of "...for the first time in history"). Every listed event can practically be described as a first for a specific location and/or situation.
  • Blurbs should describe events in complete sentences, in the present tense. They should generally use the indefinite article an or a for events rather than the (which is used by sensationalist news to imply that readers should already know about the event).
  • Blurbs should generally avoid comparison to any previous event, such as "Largest in the region since [year]". Previous events is generally out of scope of the page, and confers a publication bias favoring regions with a low frequency of similar events.

圖像[编辑]

新聞動態專欄通常會在右上角放上說明圖像。一般來說,這類圖像必須符合下列標準:

  • 圖像必需完全能夠自由使用,以及附上其授權條款與來源。在絕大多數案例中,這代表圖像能存放於維基共享資源。基於合理使用原則,上傳至維基百科並用於條目內容的圖像,不適合放在首頁。
  • 所用圖像必需是新聞內容中所提及的人物或事件。The person or event is notated with a parenthetical comment (pictured). Generally, purely decorative elements (like flags or logos) aren't posted (many are ineligible because of non-free content policies anyways); maps (which are often too small to read in thumbnail format) are also not posted.
  • In most cases, the picture is posted for the topmost blurb which has an eligible picture to go with it. (this may be a lower blurb if no pictures are available for higher blurbs). The use of a caption and the parenthetical (pictured) is used to direct readers to the context for the picture.
  • 在極少數案例中,並非所有條目都有合適的圖像。如果是這類情況,就不會張貼圖像。除非找到合適的圖像,否則我們不會進行修正。如果您發現到或創作出合適的圖像,可以在WP:ITNERRORS提報敦促上架。General complaints of a lack of a picture are usually not able to be fixed unless the complainant has a specific picture to post.

最近逝世部分[编辑]

最近逝世的單一人物、動物或其他生物體,如果其維基百科條目符合下列標準,就能進入本專欄的最近逝世部分:

  1. 目前沒有提報刪除或快速刪除。
  2. 更新並提供相關可靠來源以確認逝世消息屬實。
  3. 基於社群共識,認為條目品質足以放在首頁。

運動賽事及重複發生的事件[编辑]

特定重複發生的事件,可被認為具有充足的偏好,足以在事件發生時放上新聞動態;這些事件列於Wikipedia:新聞動態/重複發生的項目。列在該頁面的項目,無須透過新聞動態候選的討論流程來證明其關注度,且管理員可依據該列表直接在新聞動態專欄更新內容。然而,這不能取代其他新聞動態標準;相關條目在更新仍需要有合適的更新與來源引用,任何人都可以依據新聞動態標準要求管理員改善或撤下這些內容。

如果某位編輯者對於某個重複發生的事件感興趣時,那麼在新聞動態候選提名該事件時,不應同時討論納入重複發生事件的議題。要討論新增或移除重複發生事件,應該在Wikipedia:互助客棧/方針進行。

條目認可[编辑]

{{ITN notice}}與{{ITN talk}}模板用於通知相關人士,某個條目已發佈於新聞動態專欄;這兩個模板的簡介可以在各自的模板說明文件中找到。

  • 條目建立者的討論頁{{subst:ITN notice|article=條目名稱|action=建立}}
  • 條目更新者的討論頁{{subst:ITN notice|article=條目名稱|action=重大更新}}
  • 提名者的討論頁{{subst:ITN notice|article=條目名稱|action=最近提名}}
  • 自我提名者的討論頁{{subst:ITN notice|article=條目名稱|action=最近提名並進行重大更新}}
  • 條目討論頁{{ITN talk|2020年|5月30日}}

注意:任何人都可以增加這些模板而無須擁有特殊權限。如果某個編輯者的貢獻已登上新聞動態但仍然沒有掛上模板,請自行新增。

星章[编辑]

長期耕耘新聞動態的貢獻者,可能會得到認可並贈予星章

圖像 如何輸入 描述
ITN barnstar {{subst:InTheNews Barnstar|message ~~~~|2=alt}} 新聞動態星章頒贈給長期在新聞動態貢獻卓著的編輯者。

本星章由User:MelesseUser:Neutralhomer設計,於2010年8月引入。

致管理員[编辑]

參見[编辑]