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下列图表展示了国际音标(IPA)在中文维基百科条目中表示卢森堡语发音的方式。对于有关在中文维基百科条目中添加IPA字符的指南,请参见{{IPA-lb}}与Wikipedia:格式手册/音标.

请参阅卢森堡语音系以更全面地了解卢森堡语的发音。

辅音
IPA 示例 英语及其他语言里的近似发音
Native
b Been [beːn][1] ball
ɕ liicht [liːɕt], Bieg [biə̯ɕ][1][2] somewhat like she
d Iddi [ˈidi][1] done
f Fësch [fəʃ][1] fuss
ɡ Gitt [ɡit][1] guest
h hei [hɑɪ̯] hut
j Jong [joŋ] yard
k Kiischt [kiːʃt][1] cold
l liesen [ˈliə̯zən] last
m Maul [mæːʊ̯l] must
n Nues [nuə̯s] not
ŋ eng [eŋ] long
p Paart [paːt][1] puck
ʀ Rou [ʀəʊ̯], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][3] German Regen
ʁ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl],[1][2] Parmesan [ˈpɑʁməzaːn][4] Scottish loch, but voiced
s Taass [taːs][1] fast
ʃ Schnéi [ʃnəɪ̯][1][2] shall
t Taart [taːt], Jugend [ˈjuːʁənt][1] tall
ts Zuch [tsuχ][1] cats
Brëtsch [bʀətʃ][1] match
v wëschen [ˈvəʃən][1] vanish
χ Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ],[1][2] Force [foχs][4] Scottish loch
z Summer [ˈzumɐ][1] hose
ʒ Juli [ˈʒuːliː][1][2] pleasure
边缘辅音
bv Kampf opginn [ˈkɑmbv‿ˈopɡin][5] obvious
dz spadséieren [ʃpɑˈdzəɪ̯əʀən][1][6] heads
Jeans [dʒiːns][1] jeans
pf Pflicht [pfliɕt] cupful
w zwee [tsweː], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][7] we
ʑ héijen [ˈhəɪ̯ʑən][1][2] somewhat like gilet
元音
IPA 示例 英语及其他语言里的近似发音
单元音
ɑ Kapp [kɑp] art
Kap [kaːp] 澳大利亚英语 bad
æ Käpp [kæp] back
ə Fësch [fəʃ][8] balance
e drécken [ˈdʀekən][8] let
Been [beːn] Scottish pays
ɛː Stär [ʃtɛːə̯][9] bed
i Gitt [ɡit] tip
siwen [ˈziːvən], Kiischt [kiːʃt] Scottish and South African be
o So [zo], Sonn [zon] off
Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ] story
œ ëffentlech [ˈœfəntləɕ] roughly like hurt
œː Interieur [ˈɛ̃ːtəʀiœːʀ] roughly like herd
øː Blöd [bløːt]
u Hutt [hut] put
Tut [tuːt], Luucht [luːχt] true
y Hüll [hyl] roughly like shoe, but shorter
Süden [ˈzyːdən] roughly like shoe
双元音
ɑɪ̯ Gebai [ɡəˈbɑɪ̯], deier [ˈdɑɪ̯ɐ] price
ɑʊ̯ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ] RP mouth
æːɪ̯ räich [ʀæːɪ̯ɕ] Australian day
æːʊ̯ Maul [mæːʊ̯l] Australian now
əɪ̯ Schnéi [ʃnəɪ̯] face
əʊ̯ Schoul [ʃəʊ̯l] goat
oɪ̯ Euro [ˈoɪ̯ʀoː] boy
iə̯ liesen [ˈliə̯zən] RP pierce
uə̯ Buedem [ˈbuə̯dəm] traditional RP Kurt
鼻化元音
ɑ̃ː Chance [ʃɑ̃ːs] French vin blanc
ɛ̃ː Dinde [dɛ̃ːt] French vin blanc
õː Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ] French Mont Blanc
R的发音[4]
waarm [vaːm] Australian bad
ɐ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ] nut or sofa
ɛːə̯ Stär [ʃtɛːə̯] traditional RP square
iːə̯ wier [viːə̯] RP pier
oːə̯ Joer [joːə̯] traditional RP sure
uːə̯ kuerz [kuːə̯ts]
øːə̯ Föhr [føːə̯] roughly like herd
yːə̯ Bad Dürkheim [ˌbaːt ˈdyːə̯khɑɪ̯m] roughly like traditional RP pure
超音段音位
IPA 示例 解释
ˈ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl] primary stress, as in dearest /ˈdɪərəst/
ˌ Méckebaatsch [ˈmekəˌbaːtʃ] secondary stress, as in as in commandeer /ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/
sech eens [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] resyllabification and voicing of the final voiceless obstruent[5]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 Word-finally, the voiceless-voiced distinction in the obstruent pairs [p–b, t–d, k–ɡ, ts–dz, tʃ–dʒ, f–v, s–z, ɕ–ʑ, ʃ–ʒ, χ–ʁ] is neutralized, mostly in favor of the voiceless obstruents, but see the table titled Suprasegmentals (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68)).
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Both [ɕ, ʑ] and [χ, ʁ] are allophones of /χ, ʁ/. [χ, ʁ] occur after back vowels, and [ɕ, ʑ] occur in all other environments, but the voiced [ʑ] occurs only in a few words. Speakers increasingly merge [ɕ, ʑ] and [ʃ, ʒ] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68–69)).
  3. ^ The /ʀ/ phoneme is realized as a trill [ʀ] when it is prevocalic within the same word and often when it is non-prevocalic in French loanwords (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 71)).
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 When it is non-prevocalic within the same word, the /ʀ/ phoneme has many allophones:
    • after short vowels, the non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is realized as a fricative, either voiced [ʁ] or voiceless [χ], depending on whether the following consonant is voiced or voiceless;
    • /ʀ/ is fully absorbed into the preceding /aː/ in the non-prevocalic sequence /aːʀ/ and so Paart, Taart and waarm are pronounced [paːt], [taːt] and [vaːm], as if they were spelled Paat, Taat and waam;
    • after long vowels (excluding /aː/), non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is vocalized to [ə̯], creating the centering diphthongs [ɛːə̯, iːə̯, oːə̯, uːə̯] and, in loanwords from Standard German, also [øːə̯, yːə̯];
    • the unstressed, non-prevocalic orthographic sequence er corresponds to the marginal phoneme /ɐ/, although this can also be analysed as simple a sequence of /e/ and /ʀ/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70–71)).
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Apart from being the main realisation of phonemes /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/, [b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, ] occur as word-final allophones of both /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/ and /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/ (in this position, some scholars may analyse both of the sets as /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/) if the next word begins with a vowel and is pronounced without a pause. [ʁ, ʑ, bv] also occur as allophones of /χ, χ, pf/ in the same environment, but [bv] does not occur in other circumstances. In this context, the final voiceless obstruents are not only voiced but also resyllabified, or moved to the onset of the first syllable of the following word. Therefore, a somewhat more phonetically-accurate transcription of sech eens would be [zəˈʑeːns] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 72)), but it is transcribed [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] instead so that it corresponds more closely to the spelling.
  6. ^ Phonemic /dz/ occurs only in a few words (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:72))
  7. ^ [w] is an allophone of /v/ occurring after /k, ʃ, ts/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:69)). It also occurs in loanwords as a marginal phoneme.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 [ə] and [e] are allophones of a single phoneme /e/. [e] appears before velar consonants and [ə] elsewhere. Unlike in Standard German, [ə] appears in both stressed and unstressed syllables, and unstressed sequences of [ə] and a sonorant do not form syllabic sonorants (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70)).
  9. ^ [ɛː] is an allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)).

参考书目[编辑]